Main Article Content


Acinetobacter is an opportunistic pathogen that causes nosocomial infections and is one of the pathogens with the highest prevalence in the world. In addition to its prevalence, the number of isolates that are resistant to antibiotics is increasing every year worldwide. Identification of these bacteria in patients is generally carried out using various methods however, each method has drawbacks such as a long time, low accuracy, and requires high costs. To overcome this, CHROMagar Acinetobacter is used and is expected to be one of the solutions for identifying Acinetobacter in patient samples due to its selectivity and accuracy. However, in this research, several non-Acinetobacter bacteria are able to grow in this media, making identification of A. baumannii using this media remain a challenge. Using phenotypic tests, 5 isolates were successfully separated from 32 A. baumannii isolates in this study (13,51%), where these 5 isolates showed the same characteristics as A. baumannii phenotypically on CHROMagar Acinetobacter results but differ in biochemical tests. Therefore, false-positive results will be obtained based solely on CHROMagar Acinetobacter results. In sum, the use of CHROMagar Acinetobacter must be followed by other conventional tests to increase the accuracy of Acinetobacter identification in specimens.


Acinetobacter CHROMagar Identification

Article Details

How to Cite
Wiranto E, Kiranasari A, Kusumawati L, Mutiara, Tania T. Morphological Characteristics and Differentiation of Acinetobacter baumannii Colony on Selective Medium CHROMagar Acinetobacter. EKSAKTA [Internet]. 2024Mar.30 [cited 2024Apr.22];25(01):91-8. Available from:


  1. Corral, J., Pérez-Varela, M., Sánchez-Osuna, M., Cortés, P., Barbé, J., & Aranda, J. (2021). Importance of twitching and surface-associated motility in the virulence of Acinetobacter baumannii. Virulence, 12(1), 2201-2213.
  2. De la Maza, L. M., Pezzlo, M. T., Bittencourt, C. E., & Peterson, E. M. (2020). Color atlas of medical bacteriology. John Wiley & Sons.
  3. Garrity, G. M. (2005). Bergey's Manual® of Systematic Bacteriology: Volume Two: The Proteobacteria (Part C). D. J. Brenner, N. R. Krieg, & J. T. Staley (Eds.). Springer US.
  4. Vázquez-López, R., Solano-Gálvez, S. G., Juárez Vignon-Whaley, J. J., Abello Vaamonde, J. A., Padró Alonzo, L. A., Rivera Reséndiz, A., ... & Barrientos Fortes, T. (2020). Acinetobacter baumannii resistance: a real challenge for clinicians. Antibiotics, 9(4), 205.
  5. Sarshar, M., Behzadi, P., Scribano, D., Palamara, A. T., & Ambrosi, C. (2021). Acinetobacter baumannii: an ancient commensal with weapons of a pathogen. Pathogens, 10(4), 387.
  6. Kyriakidis, I., Vasileiou, E., Pana, Z. D., & Tragiannidis, A. (2021). Acinetobacter baumannii antibiotic resistance mechanisms. Pathogens, 10(3), 373.
  7. Vrancianu, C. O., Gheorghe, I., Czobor, I. B., & Chifiriuc, M. C. (2020). Antibiotic resistance profiles, molecular mechanisms and innovative treatment strategies of Acinetobacter baumannii. Microorganisms, 8(6), 935.
  8. Ayoub Moubareck, C., & Hammoudi Halat, D. (2020). Insights into Acinetobacter baumannii: a review of microbiological, virulence, and resistance traits in a threatening nosocomial pathogen. Antibiotics, 9(3), 119.
  9. Zahra, N., Zeshan, B., Qadri, M. M. A., Ishaq, M., Afzal, M., & Ahmed, N. (2021). Phenotypic and genotypic evaluation of antibiotic resistance of Acinetobacter baumannii bacteria isolated from surgical intensive care unit patients in Pakistan. Jundishapur Journal of Microbiology, 14(4).
  10. Ma, C., & McClean, S. (2021). Mapping global prevalence of Acinetobacter baumannii and recent vaccine development to tackle it. Vaccines, 9(6), 570.
  11. Ajao, A. O., Robinson, G., Lee, M. S., Ranke, T. D., Venezia, R. A., Furuno, J. P., ... & Johnson, J. K. (2011). Comparison of culture media for detection of Acinetobacter baumannii in surveillance cultures of critically-ill patients. European journal of clinical microbiology & infectious diseases, 30, 1425-1430.
  12. Vijayakumar, S., Biswas, I., & Veeraraghavan, B. (2019). Accurate identification of clinically important Acinetobacter spp.: an update. Future science OA, 5(7), FSO395.
  13. Falah, F., Shokoohizadeh, L., & Adabi, M. (2019). Molecular identification and genotyping of Acinetobacter baumannii isolated from burn patients by PCR and ERIC-PCR. Scars, burns & healing, 5, 2059513119831369.
  14. Hu, S., Niu, L., Zhao, F., Yan, L., Nong, J., Wang, C., ... & Gu, J. (2019). Identification of Acinetobacter baumannii and its carbapenem-resistant gene bla OXA-23-like by multiple cross displacement amplification combined with lateral flow biosensor. Scientific Reports, 9(1), 17888.
  15. Rao, M., Rashid, F. A., Shukor, S., Hashim, R., & Ahmad, N. (2020). Detection of antimicrobial resistance genes associated with carbapenem resistance from the whole-genome sequence of Acinetobacter baumannii isolates from Malaysia. Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases and Medical Microbiology, 2020.
  16. Makke, G., Bitar, I., Salloum, T., Panossian, B., Alousi, S., Arabaghian, H., ... & Tokajian, S. (2020). Whole-genome-sequence-based characterization of extensively drug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii hospital outbreak. MSphere, 5(1), 10-1128.
  17. Ciftci, A., Karakece, E., Atasoy, A., Asik, G., & Ciftci, I. (2015). Culture media for detection of Acinetobacter baumannii selective media for detection of A baumannii. Journal of Microbiology & Experimentation, 2(3), 1-4.
  18. Yusuf, I., Skiebe, E., & Wilharm, G. (2023). Evaluation of CHROMagar Acinetobacter and MacConkey media for the recovery of Acinetobacter baumannii from soil samples. Letters in Applied Microbiology, 76(2), ovac051.
  19. Sehree, M. M., Abdullah, H. N., & Jasim, A. M. (2021). Isolation and Evaluation of Clinically Important Acinetobacter Baumannii From Intensive Care Unit Samples. Journal of Techniques, 3(3), 83-90.
  20. AL-Enawey, A. W., Saadedin, S. M., & Al-Khaldi, S. A. M. (2020). Isolation, Identification And Antimicrobial Susceptibility Of Staphylococcus Aureus And Acinetobacter Baumannii Isolated From Babylon Hospitals.
  21. Sachu, A., & Samuel, A. K. (2022). Evaluation of chromogenic agar medium, can it be a suitable alternative to conventional culture system for identification of uropathogens?. Iranian Journal of Microbiology, 14(6), 825.
  22. Benoit, T., Cloutier, M., Schop, R., Lowerison, M. W., & Khan, I. U. (2020). Comparative assessment of growth media and incubation conditions for enhanced recovery and isolation of Acinetobacter baumannii from aquatic matrices. Journal of Microbiological Methods, 176, 106023.
  23. Ali, N., Hussain, W., Mirza, I., Niazi, A., Rubab, F., & Salim, S. (2023). Diagnostic Accuracy of CHROMagar Orientation for Identification of Uropathogens. Pakistan Armed Forces Medical Journal, 73(1), 17-20.
  24. Mannathoko, N., Lautenbach, E., Mosepele, M., Otukile, D., Sewawa, K., Glaser, L., ... & Richard-Greenblatt, M. (2023). Performance of CHROMagar ESBL media for the surveillance of extended-spectrum cephalosporin-resistant Enterobacterales (ESCrE) from rectal swabs in Botswana. Journal of Medical Microbiology, 72(11), 001770.
  25. Riddell, S. W., & Sanyal, S. (2019). Essentials of diagnostic microbiology. Introduction to Clinical Infectious Diseases: A Problem-Based Approach, 439-460.
  26. Rocha, A. J., Barsottini, M. R. D. O., Rocha, R. R., Laurindo, M. V., Moraes, F. L. L. D., & Rocha, S. L. D. (2019). Pseudomonas aeruginosa: virulence factors and antibiotic resistance genes. Brazilian Archives of Biology and Technology, 62, e19180503.
  27. Ramasamy, K. P., Brugel, S., Eriksson, K. I. A., & Andersson, A. (2023). Pseudomonas ability to utilize different carbon substrates and adaptation influenced by protozoan grazing. Environmental Research, 232, 116419.
  28. Karah, N., Rafei, R., Elamin, W., Ghazy, A., Abbara, A., Hamze, M., & Uhlin, B. E. (2020). Guideline for urine culture and biochemical identification of bacterial urinary pathogens in low-resource settings. Diagnostics, 10(10), 832.
  29. Ahmad, N. H., & Mohammad, G. A. (2020). Identification of Acinetobacter baumannii and Determination of MDR and XDR Strains. Baghdad Science Journal, 17(3), 0726-0726.
  30. Truong, T. V., Twist, A., Zaytsev, A., Marrs, E. C., Perry, A., Turnbull, G., ... & Perry, J. D. (2022). Evaluation of a Novel Chromogenic Medium for the Detection of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in Respiratory Samples from Patients with Cystic Fibrosis. Microorganisms, 10(5), 1004.