Main Article Content


The purpose of this study was to determine the variation of the stem anatomical structure (i.e. cortex: sclerenchyma, phloem; xylem: trachea, rays, interxylary phloem and wood parenchyma; and pith) of Gyrinops (Thymelaeaceae) in Sulawesi. The method of this research was descriptive exploration. Stem agarwood sample came from several regions areas of Sulawesi which were collected by Agarwood Research Center Laboratory, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, University of Mataram. The slide methods were used fresh slides. The results of this research showed there were 1 species of Gyrinops decipiens  and 3 species of Gyrinops sp., with various anatomical characters in G. decipiens  and Gyrinops sp. in terms of the position, diameter and percentage of pith thickness; cortical sclerenchyma pattern and arrangement of wood parenchyma. There were also variations in cortical thickness; diameter, frequency and arrangement of trachea; frequency of rays; diameter, and interxylary phloem frequency; pith diameter; and the position of Ca-Oxalate in Gyrinops sp. 3 with Gyrinops sp. 1 and 2, while Gyrinops sp. 2 with Gyrinops sp. 1 there were found 5 variations such as the diameter, frequency and arrangement of trachea; arrangement of rays and interxylary phloem length.


Agarwood Gyrinops interxylary phloem plant anatomy Sulawesi

Article Details

How to Cite
Karmilawati K, Mulyaningsih T, Muspiah A, Ito M. Stem Anatomical Variation of Genus Gyrinops (Thymelaeaceae) in Sulawesi. EKSAKTA [Internet]. 2021Mar.27 [cited 2023May29];22(1):35-4. Available from:


  1. Mulyaningsih T, Marsono D, Sumardi & Yamada I. Selection of Superior Breeding intraspecies Gaharu Gyrinops versteegii (Gilg.) Domke. Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology. 2014;4(2):485-492.
  2. Susmianto A & Santoso E. When Agarwood Becomes Booming. In: Susmianto A, Turjaman M. & Setio P. (Eds). Track Record: Agarwood InoCulation. ed 2. Forestry Research And Development Agency FORDA Press. Bogor. 2014.
  3. Hou D. Thymelaeaceae. In: Van Steenis C.G.G.J. (ed.) Flora Malesiana. 1960;6 (1):1-160.
  4. Mulyaningsih T. & Yamada I. Notes on Some Species of Agarwood in Nusa Tenggara, Celebes and West Papua. Faculty of Agriculture, Mataram University -Professor Emeritus, Kyoto University. 2007a.
  5. Mandang, Y.I & B. Wiyono. Anatomy of Eagle Wood (Aquilaria malaccensis Lamk.) and Several Related Species. Forest Products Research Buletin. Forestry Engineering and Forest Products ProCessing Research and Development Center, Forestry Research and Development Agency. Bogor. 2002.
  6. Donaldson LA. Analysis of fibres using microscopy. In Handbook of Textile Fibre Structure: Fundamentals and Manufactured Polymer Fibres. CRC Press, Boca Raton. 2009: 121-140
  7. Andianto. Anatomical Features of Five Species Producing-Eaglewood And Two Related Species. Journal of Forest Products Research. 2010;28(2):169-183.
  8. Angyalossy V, Pace MR & Baas P (eds.). IAWA List Microscopic Bark Features. IAWA Journal. 2016;37(4): 517–615.
  9. Wheeler EA, Baas P & Gasson PE (eds.). List of Microscopic Features For Hardwood Identification with an Appendix on non-anatomical information. IAWA Bulletin. 1989;10(3): 219–882.
  10. Mulyaningsih, T., Sumarjan & Parman. Influent of light intensity to anatomy of agarwood made, yearly ring and new tissues on around inoCulation holes at eaglewood tree Gyrinops versteegii (Gilg) Domke. National Development Planning Agency. 2007;1 (112/113)
  11. Suharti, Mukarlina & Gusmalawati D. The anatomical structure of the root, stem and leaf of the agarwood (Aquilaria malaccensis) that experiences drought stress. Protobiont. 2017;6(2):38-44.
  12. Mulyaningsih T, Hadi S & Sumarjan. Influence of fungi isolates on the quality of production and bioactive content of agarwood on the ketimunan trees (Gyrinops versteegii (Gilg.) Domke). In: Paper of National Seminar of Fundamental Research Result, Department Higher Education Directorate of National Education. Jakarta. 2004.
  13. Metcalfe MM, and Chalk MML. Anatomy of the Dicotyledons, Vol. 2, the Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1923:30-186.
  14. Asdar. 2006. The Anatomical Characteristics of Eagle Wood (Gyrinops versteegii (Gilg.) Domke) from Gorontalo. Perennial Journal. 3(1): 6-10.
  15. Mulyaningsih T & Sumarjan. Formation Interxylary Phloem and Aromatic Resin In Gyrinops versteegii (Thymelaeaceae). IAWA Journal. 2002;23(24): 472-473.
  16. Mohamed R (ed.). Agarwood Science Behind the Fragrance. Springer Nature. Singapore. 2016. DOI 10.1007/978-981-10-0833-7.
  17. Rao KR & Dayal R. The Secondary Xylem of Aquilaria agallocha (Thymelaeaceae) And The Formation Of 'Agar’. IAWA Bulletin. 1992;13 (2):163-172.
  18. Widoyanti, Prasetyorini & Ismanto. Differences in Anatomical Structure of Agarwood-Producing Plants from Aquilaria spp. and Gyrinops versteegii. Ekologia. 2017;17(1):1-6.
  19. Luo B, Ou Y, Pan B, Qiu J, & Itoh T. The structure and development of interxylary and external phloem in Aquilaria sinensis. DOI 10.1163/22941932-20170182. Published by Koninklijke Brill NV, Leiden. IAWA Journal. 2018;39 (1):3–17.
  20. Luo B, Imai T, Sugiyama J, Marsoem SN, Mulyaningsih T. and Itoh T. The occurrence and structure of radial sieve tubes in the secondary xylem of Aquilaria and Gyrinops. IAWA Journal, 2020;41(2):109-124.
  21. Moya R, Gondaliya AD & Rajput KS. Stem Anatomy And Development of Interxylary Phloem In Strychnos bredemeyeri (Loganiaceae). Anales de Biología. 2017;39:75-87.
  22. Mulyaningsih, T., Parman, E.A. Widjaja & Sumarjan. Fungus Fusarium lateritium trigger formation agarwood proCess on Ketimunan trees (Gyrinops versteegii (Gilg) Domke), in: Sciencetific Yearly Meeting. Bandung. 2003.
  23. Chalk L & Chattaway MM. Identification of wood with included phloem. Tropical wood. 1937;50:1-31.
  24. Pearson RS, & Brown HP. Commercial timbers of India. Vol. II. Government of lndia Central Publication Branch. Calcuta. 1932:858-864.
  25. Mulyaningsih T, Parman & Sumarjan. Increasing of bio-processing agarwood with synergisms of some fungi isolate on Gyrinops versteegii (Gilg) Domke, in: Article National Seminar of Fundamental Research Result. Department Higher Education Directorate of National Education. Jakarta. 2005.